Pregnant women are at risk of developing gestational diabetes if they use shampoo that contains phthalates, a 2021 study finds. Fetal exposure to this xenoestrogen can lead to intrauterine fetal dysplasia, macrosomia, neonatal genital malformation. Phthalates are endocrine disruptors and have been proven to be harmful by a large number of studies. Pregnant women should reduce contact with hormone disrupting chemicals to prevent an increase in pregnancy complications and adverse effects in both the fetus and mother.
Benzophenone-3 (also called oxybenzone) is one of the most frequently used ultraviolet light filters present in sunscreen and personal care products. A 2020 study associates a higher percentage of females being born to mothers topically exposed to benzophenone-3. An altered estrogen and testosterone balance, female infertility and other problems were associated with this endocrine disrupting chemical.
Microplastics, particles smaller than five millimeters, were found in human placentas in a 2020 study titled 'Plasticenta'. The plastics originated from man-made coatings, paints, adhesives, finger paints, polymers and cosmetics/personal care products. All microplastics were found on the foetal side, the maternal side and in the chorioamniotic membranes (the membranes that make up the amniotic sac which surrounds and protects the fetus). The authors of the study
Prenatal exposure to acetaminophen (paracetamol) can cause disruptions in ovary development of female fetuses a 2018 study reveals.
A 2019 study found taking acetaminophen (paracetamol), while pregnant, interferes with testosterone production in male fetuses and may be linked to cryptorchidism (undescended testicles) in newborn boys.
A peer reviewed study discussing gestational exposure to the xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) and the increased risk of developing breast cancer during adulthood; long after cessation of exposure to BPA.
A French Government (ANSES) report which recommends restricted use of Bisphenol A & S in thermal paper due to documented risks to the developing fetuses reproductive system.